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UNI I

I. TEXT: TRAINING SCIENTISTS IN THE USSR

Soviet people learn to love science even while they are at school. At higher schools, for the first time, students begin to take part in scientific and engineering work. Besides their studies, they carry on research in different students' groups and societies. Professors help students to develop their abilities and discover in which field of science and technics they will employ these abilities.

The main way in which research workers and higher-school teachers get their scientific training is the post-graduate course. The establishment of such courses in 1925 laid the foundation for the training of scientists.





Young people who graduate from schools of higher learning and want to take a post-graduate course do so after two years of practical work. They take examinations in special subject, Marxist-Leninist philosophy and foreign languages.

In our country we also have an extra-mural course of post-graduate training for people who want to do scientific investigation and do not want to leave work.

All post-graduates study free of charge. Those who take a full-time post-graduate course get state allowances. Universities and institutes provide post-graduates free of charge with all scientific instruments and experimental equipment which enable them to carry on research. They work under experienced scientific advisers.

But that is not the only way to train future scientists, Another way is to create conditions for specialists to carry on research in different institutions, factories, laboratories, etc., and present a thesis for a scientific degree after they finish their work.

The Soviet State provides young people with everything necessary to prepare for a scientific career and enable them to make important contributions to the development of Soviet science. In our country a scientific worker does not look for a job, the job looks for him.

II. WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS TO BE MEMORIZED

SCIENCE to contribute

field of science contribution

scientist to make contribution to

scientific

scientific training

scientific adviser (supervisor)

scientific instruments

scientific degree

scientific career

research

to do research, to carry on research

to take part in research

to take part in scientific and engineering work

research work

research worker

research student

investigation

to investigate

investigator

a post-graduate course

to take (a) post-graduate course (studies)

to take entrance examinations

to pass examinations

a post-graduate student

extra-mural course of post-graduate training

training

to train

free of charge

thesis syn. dissertation

to present a thesis

to read a thesis

to develop

development

to discover

discovery

important

necessary

to combine research with work

to look for

III. EXERCISES

1. Answer the following questions on the text.

  1. Where do Soviet people begin to take part in scientific and engineering work?
  2. Did you carry on research in a students group or society when being a student? What field of science were you interested in?
  3. What is the main way of training scientists in the USSR?
  4. What is another way of training scientists in our country?
  5. What are you? Are you a research student or a post-graduate student?
  6. What is your speciality?
  7. In what field of science do you carry on your research?
  8. When did you take a post-graduate course?
  9. What entrance examinations did you pass?
  10. Do all post-graduates study free of charge?
  11. Does the Soviet State provide young people with everything necessary to prepare for a scientific career?
  12. Are there all scientific instruments and experimental equipment in your laboratory which enable you to carry on research?
  13. How is your laboratory equipped? What devices and installations do you work with?

2. Form nouns from the following verbs, translate into Russian.

To graduate, to develop, to equip, to train, to help, to study, to learn, to discover, to research, to teach, to establish, to found, to provide, to create, to present, to prepare, to investigate.

3. Insert words and expressions from the text.

  1. ... is the main way in which research workers and higher-school teachers get their ... .
  2. Young people who want to take post-graduate course ... in special subject, Marxist-Leninist philosophy and a foreign language.
  3. The establishment of post-graduate courses in 1925 laid the foundation for... .
  4. All post-graduates study ... .
  5. Institutes post-graduates with all scientific instruments and ... which enable them to ... research.
  6. The Soviet State provides young people with everything necessary to prepare for ... .

/Experimental equipment, post-graduate course, provide, scientific training, scientific career, to take examinations, to carry on, training of scientists, free of charge/.

4. Answer the following questions using the words in brackets and some of the introductory phrases:

as far as I know, to my knowledge, as far as I remember, to my mind, certainly, it's hard to tell, probably, to tell the truth, if I am not mistaken, of course, I hope so, as far as I can judge.

EXAMPLE: Do you work hard? (to be associated with).

Of course I do. I am associated with a team of workers and all of us work rather hard.

  1. Are you going to take part in the research carried on in your laboratory? (to obtain new data).
  2. What activities is your supervisor engaged in? (to be at the head of, to give / deliver / lectures).
  3. Do you work alone at your problem? (in a team, in collaboration with).
  4. What is the main problem you work at? (to work under somebody).
  5. Are you very busy? (further studies).

5. Paraphrase the following sentences using the expressions:

in ones opinion, to be of the opinion that ..., to be of the same (of a different) opinion on some point, to differ in opinion on some point.

EXAMPLE: I think (that) the theory works well.

I am of the opinion that the theory works well.

In my opinion it works well.

  1. To my mind, your approach will give reliable results.
  2. I quite agree with you on what you say.
  3. I think I shall arrange necessary data by the end of the year.
  4. I am afraid we must use some other method of investigation.

6. Insert prepositions where necessary.

  1. We devote much efforts ... experimental work.
  2. My friend has already passed his examination ... Marxist-Leninist philosophy.
  3. I usually consult ... my supervisor twice a week.
  4. I work. professor Talantov.
  5. We are interested ... the production ... new coatings.
  6. My sister took a post-graduate course last year.
  7. She graduated ... our institute four years ago.

7. Construct sentences using the following words and expressions.

To study under professor N.; to collect (classify, check up, arrange) the data; to consult ones supervisor on something; to work in a team; to do theoretical (practical) work; to succeed in obtaining reliable results.

8. Translate into English.

  1. .
  2. . .
  3. .
  4. .
  5. .

/to carry on; to do research; to be engaged in; to investigate; to study; to take a post-graduate course; to do a post-graduate course; to do post-graduate studies/

9. Compose as many sentences as possible.

By means of this theory it is possible to explain ...

experiment to investigate

data to study

results to express

hypothesis to understand

formula to interpret

The experiment shows that ...

proves

explains

makes it clear

10. React to the following statements and questions using the verbs TO OBTAIN or TO RECEIVE.

Mind: TO OBTAIN means "to get something by making efforts" (to obtain data, evidence, information, knowledge, a result, a degree; to receive a degree is also possible), TO RECEIVE means "to get what is offered, given, sent" (to receive a letter, news, a telegram, education, training, an award).

EXAMPLE: You obtained valuable information, didnt you?

Yes, Im glad, to tell you, I succeeded in obtaining important information.

  1. I hear you obtained some convincing experimental evidence to prove your hypothesis.
  2. As far as I understood, you received your education at the University. Is it really so?
  3. Did your scientific adviser receive the Lenin prize?
  4. I suppose you obtained a lot of experience through your work.
  5. I hope the results obtained, by you will help you to proceed with your experiment.

11. React to the wrong statements below using some of the following introductory phrases: thats wrong; I am afraid you are wrong; you are not (quite) right; I cant agree with you (to that); you are mistaken; on the contrary.

EXAMPLE: I think English spelling is very simple.

I am afraid you are wrong. It is very difficult.

  1. It seems to me you are not interested in your work.
  2. I hear you work under Professor N.
  3. The staff of your laboratory doesn't participate in the research program of the Institute.
  4. They have got two research teams at their laboratory.
  5. I know your research covers a wide range of subjects.

12. Give both short and full answers to the following questions.

EXAMPLE: Are you going to read for your examination?

Yes, I am. I am going to read for my examination.

  1. Do you work for your thesis?
  2. Is your work associated with experimenting?
  3. Do you apply your knowledge of the theory to your experimental work?
  4. Will you be engaged in the solution of some particular problem?
  5. Do you carry on individual research?
  6. Does your Institute encourage research?
  7. Did your supervisor encourage you to read a paper at the conference?
  8. Are there any scientists of international reputation working at your institute?
  9. Does your research cover a wide range of subjects?

13. Speak on the experimental part of your work. Use the following words and expressions.

  1. An experiment, experimental, experimentally, experimenter.
  2. To make (to begin, to start, to carry out, to perform, to conduct, to do) a set (a series) of experiments.
  3. To experiment on something.
  4. The experiment shows (proves, explains, makes it clear) that
  5. The experiment leads us to conclude (to assume, to postulate) that
  6. The results (the data) of an experiment enable us to determine (to estimate, to compute, to see) something.
  7. The experiment lasts (takes) several days.
  8. The experiment is completed (is over).
  9. To make measurements during the experiment.
  10. To take readings of the apparatus.
  11. To obtain (to classify, to compare, to analyze) the data (results).
  12. To sum up (to summarize) the data in tables/
  13. To draw conclusions from experimental data.
  14. On the basis of the experiment it was concluded that ...

14. Speak on the theoretical part of your work. Use the following words and expressions.

  1. A theory, theoretical, theoretically, in theory, a theoretician.
  2. To advance (to propose, to develop, to suggest, to put forward, to work out) a theory.
  3. The theory is based upon (is due to) something.
  4. The theory predicts (explains, describes, proves, supports, suggests, disproves) something.
  5. According to the theory...
  6. The theory is valid (for), is true (for), agrees with, is in keeping with, is in agreement with, is consistent with ...
  7. There is an agreement (a contradictions, a disagreement, a discrepancy) between theory and experiment.
  8. To advance (to put forward, to propose, to build up, to set up, to formulate, to create) a hypothesis.
  9. To offer a reasonably satisfactory picture of the events.
  10. To account for the phenomenon.
  11. To verify (to check, to test) the hypothesis.

IV. SUPPLEMENT

Text: SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION

Our science makes terrific demands on the imagination. The degree of imagination that is required is much more extreme than that required for some of the ancient ideas. The modern ideas are much harder to imagine. We use a lot of tools, though. We use mathematical equations and rules, and make a lot of pictures.

The whole question of imagination in science is often misunderstood by people in other disciplines. They try to test our imagination in the following way. They say, "Here is a picture of some people in a situation. What do you imagine will happen next?" When we say, "I cant imagine", they may think we have a weak imagination. They overlook the fact that whatever we are allowed to imagine in science must be consistent with everything else we know: that the electric fields and the waves we talk about are not just some happy thoughts which we are free to make as we wish, but ideas which must be consistent with all the laws of physics we know. We can't allow ourselves to seriously imagine things which are obviously in contradiction to the known laws of nature. And so our kind of imagination is quite a difficult game.

One has to have the imagination to think of something that has never been heard of before, never bean seen before. At the same time the thoughts are restricted in a strait jacket, so to speak, limited by the conditions that come from our knowledge of the way nature really is. The problem of creating something which is new, but which is consistent with everything which has been seen before, is one of extreme difficulty.

Answer the following questions on the text.

  1. What should scientific imagination be based upon?
  2. Why is it difficult to imagine things in science?
  3. What is scientific imagination according to the text?
  4. When does scientific imagination stimulate research?
  5. When is it useless or even harmful?
  6. What do you think of the future of physics (chemistry, welding, etc.)?
  7. Along what lines will it develop?

Opening phrases.

  1. I shall start by describing ...
  2. To begin with, one can say...
  3. It shall be noted (mentioned, observed, emphasized, pointed out) that ...
  4. It is evident (obvious, unlikely, doubtful) that...
  5. I think (believe, suggest) that ...
  6. What I mean (want) to say (to show, to express, to prove, to emphasize) is that
  7. What I (we) find in fact is that ...
  8. The problem is the following.
  9. As far as I can judge ...
  10. As far as I know ...
  11. As far as I remember
  12. In my opinion ...
  13. From my point of view
  14. To my knowledge
  15. To my mind
  16. For all I know
  17. If I am not mistaken
  18. To tell the truth
  19. I am interested to know why...
  20. I'd like to know ...
  21. I have no idea
  22. It seems clear ( possible, obvious, surprising, unexpected, doubtful) that ...
  23. As a matter of fact.

List of questions.

    • Do you work at your thesis?
    • Are you a post-graduate or a research student?
    • When did you take your post-graduate courses?
    • What year are you in? (What year student are you?)
    • What examinations have you already passed?
    • Who is your scientific adviser? (Under whom do you work?)
    • What is the subject of your thesis?
    • Have you already published any articles? Where and when did you publish them? Are you going to publish any more?
    • What are you going to prove in the course of your research?
    • Is there much or little material published on the subject of your investigation?
    • What is of particular interest in your work?
    • What is the purpose of your paper?
    • Have you ever attended a scientific symposium (congress, conference)? What problem was it devoted to? When and where was it held?
    • Where do you work? How long have you bean working there? What is your speciality? What laboratory do you work at? In what field do you carry on your investigation? How is your laboratory equipped? Have you any big installations in your laboratory and what are they?
    • Are you a theoretician or an experimentator? (Are you doing theoretical or experimental work?)
    • What do you investigate?
    • Do you work in a team or have you an individual topic? (Do you work alone or in collaboration with your colleagues?)
    • What methods do you use in your work? Do you develop (work out) various methods? How do you collect the data? What do you usually do when the experiment is over? What do you do with the data obtained?
    • Is it difficult to analyze the results?
    • Do the data obtained enable you to come to important conclusions?
    • Can you claim that the problem you studied is solved?
    • When are you supposed to read your thesis?
    • What part of your dissertation have you already completed?
    • When are you going to publish your abstracts?
    • What scientific degree will you get?
    • How does your supervisor follow your work?
    • Have you obtained all the necessary data?
    • Where can the results of your research be used in future?

    UNI II

    I. TEXT: NIELS BOHR

    Bohr is a Danish physicist, one of the most ingenious interpreters of his generation of his problems of modern theoretical physics. Born at Copenhagen on October 7, 1885, he did physics at the University of Copenhagen, obtaining his doctors degree in 1913 and proceeded immediately to Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge for further study under Sir J.J.Thomson. In 1912 he moved to Manchester University, where he was associated with Ernest Rutherford in latters atomic research. In 1914, following a year as lecturer at the University of Copenhagen Bohr returned to Manchester, remaining there until 1916, when he was made professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen.

    In 1920, largely due to Bohrs efforts, the Institute of Theoretical Physics was established at Copenhagen. He became its first head and under him the Institute became an important centre for the development of theoretical and experimental physics. Prior to World War II Bohrs Institute had become the world center for atomic physics.

    Just before World War II Bohr advanced the idea that the compound nucleus was fundamental to the phenomena of nuclear disintegration, a concept that proved fruitful in later work. In collaboration with John Archibald Wheeler he proposed a theory of nuclear fission that lad to atomic research which produced atomic bomb.

    In 1943, after the Nazis had occupied Denmark, Bohr escaped to England in a small boat. Making the way to the United States, he took a leading part in the atomic bomb project, working mainly at the laboratory established in early 1943 at Los Angeles in New Mexico. In 1944 - 1945 Bohr served as adviser to the Scientific Staff of the Manhattan Project. In 1945 Bohr returned to Copenhagen to resume his duties as director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics.

    Bohrs great achievement was recognized internatially by the Nobel prize awarded to him in 1922 for his study of atomic structure and radiation. In 1957 he was the first recipient of the Atoms for Peace award. That same year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he delivered his lecture on the philosophical Lessons of Atomic Progress.

    II. WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS TO BE MEMORIZED

    to be associated with

    phenomenon (phenomena)

    to work in collaboration with

    project

    to work in a team

    to consult ones supervisor

    to take part in

    theory

    to take a leading part in

    to propose a theory

    to achieve

    to advance an idea

    achievement

    theoretical

    lecture

    theoretician

    to deliver lectures

    practice

    syn. to lecture

    practical

    lecturer

    practician

    to be born

    experiment

    to study under somebody

    experimental

    to be recognized

    experimentor

    III. EXERCISES

    1. Answer the following questions on the text.

    1. Who was Bohr?
    2. What is he famous for?
    3. Where was he educated?
    4. When did he obtain his doctors degree?
    5. Where did he go for further studies?
    6. Under whom did he study at Cambridge?
    7. Where did he move in 1912?
    8. What can you say about the Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen?
    9. What ideas did Bohr advance?
    10. Did Bohr stay in Denmark after the Nazis had occupied the country?
    11. What activities of Bohr won him international recognition?
    12. What award did he receive in 1957?

    2. Answer the following questions.

    1. Where and when were you born?
    2. Where were you educated?
    3. What is your speciality?
    4. Did you do further study after graduation?
    5. Under whom did you work after graduation?
    6. Where do you work now?
    7. How long have you been working there?
    8. Who runs your laboratory?
    9. What field of knowledge do you work in?
    10. Who do you think has advanced the most fundamental ideas in your field of science?
    11. What part do you take in research carried on at your laboratory?
    12. Are you interested in research? Why?
    13. Do you combine activities in research with experimental work?

    3. Agree to the statements below using some of the following introductory phrases: I quite (fully) agree with you; you are right; thats right; yes, indeed; exactly so; quite so; I believe so.

    EXAMPLE: 1) As far as I know Bohr was a Danish physicist.

    You are right. He was an outstanding physicist, one of the most ingenious interpreters of the problems of modern physics.

    2) If I am not mistaken, Bohr obtained his doctors degree in 1911.

    Exactly so. After that he proceeded to Cambridge.

    1. If I am not mistaken, Bohr left Cambridge for Manchester.
    2. As far as I could gather from the text, Bohr took an active part in establishing the Institute of Theoretical Physics.
    3. I believe Bohr advanced a lot of concepts of far-reaching consequence.
    4. As far as I could understand from what I've read, Bohr did not stay in Denmark after the Nazis had occupied the country.
    5. I have heard Bohrs great achievement was generally recognized, wasnt it?
    6. According to what I know, Bohr was not only a distinguished physicist but an outstanding philosopher as well.
    7. Am I to understand that Bohr worked not only in Denmark but also in America?

    4. Translate into English using the expressions: to work under somebody (to study under somebody, etc.).

    1. .
    2. . (associates) (to develop) .
    3. (team), ., (to make a discovery).
    4. ?
    5. , ., (joint; workers).

    5. Paraphrase the sentences below.

    EXAMPLE: To my mind, the text is very interesting.

    I find the text very interesting.

    1. To my mind, the experiment is very important.
    2. To my mind, the advice is very helpful.
    3. To my mind the idea is rather simple (complicated).
    4. To my mind, the data are accurate.
    5. To my mind, the book is too difficult.
    6. To my mind, your experiment is easy.

    6. Agree or disagree to the following statements.

    EXAMPLE: I know (that) your Institute trains postgraduate students.

    Yes, you are right. Besides our Institute does research.

    No, I see you are mistaken (misinformed). Our Institute does not train post-graduate students. It trains only undergraduates.

    1. As far as I know you carry on research into many problems of vital importance.
    2. I found that almost all teachers combine activities in research with experimental work.
    3. I believe you base your experiment on theoretical considerations.
    4. According to what Ive been told every post-graduate of our laboratory is working at the same problem.
    5. As far as I know doctor N. went to Moscow on business.
    6. Research students are not supposed to take their examinations in languages.
    7. I think the facilities of our Institute are quite up-to-date.
    8. Am I to understand that your scientific adviser is on leave now?

    7. Insert: interest, interesting, interested.

    1. He takes great ... in the experiment.
    2. Is this problem of particular ...?
    3. What is your opinion on the work? Do you find our research ...?
    4. His suggestion is of ... .
    5. I am particularly ... in the technique of your experiment.

    8. Compose sentences using the following expressions.

    the results presented

    to agree with

    the data obtained

    to be in agreement with

    the conclusions made

    to be in keeping with

    the information available

    to be consistent with

    9. Speak about the manager of a laboratory.

    1. To be a well-known (distinguished, prominent, famous) scientist.
    2. To be engaged in different activities.
    3. To be at the head of (to head, to run, to manage) a laboratory (team, group)/
    4. To run seminars.
    5. To go on business.
    6. To take part in
    7. To make joint (important, outstanding, far-reaching) research into ...
    8. To make a thorough (accurate, complete) study (investigation).
    9. To advance (to put forward, to suggest, to work out) an idea (a hypothesis, an approach, a theory, a method).
    10. To obtain a lot of experience (data, information, knowledge) through ones work (research, study, experiment).
    11. To be generally recognized.

    10. Speak about the laboratory you work at. Use the following questions as a plan of your talk.

    1. What is the main orientation of the laboratory you work at?
    2. Who is the head of your laboratory?
    3. What laboratory is closely allied with yours in its work?
    4. Does the staff of your laboratory participate in the research program of the Institute?
    5. How is your laboratory equipped?
    6. What devices and installations do you use in your research?
    7. What substances do you work with?
    8. How many scientific papers have resulted from the research accomplished at your laboratory?

    11. Substitute attributive clauses by attributes of the kind: under consideration (investigation, study), in progress, in question.

    EXAMPLE: The methods which are being considered are applied at our Institute.

    The methods under consideration are applied at our Institute.

    1. This professor is an outstanding authority on the subject which is being discussed.
    2. The subject which is being studied is of considerable interest.
    3. The problem which was being discussed attracted widespread attention.
    4. We are going to make a report on research which is being carried on at our laboratory.
    5. Special attention must be directed to the subject which is being studied by our team.

    12. Insert articles where necessary.

    ... conference I attended ... month ago was organized by ... Academy of ... Sciences of ... USSR. ... number of registered participants was larger than that at ... previous conference of this kind which was held ... last year. ... conference attracted large number of ... outstanding scientists. ... number of people came from abroad. ... opening ceremony was held in ... assembly hall of ... Moscow University. At ... end of each session ... hour was set aside for discussion. ... most significant communication at ... conference was given by ... Professor L. There was ... most interesting exhibition of ... books arranged in ... room number 3 of ... main building of ... University. ...series of ... interesting tours followed ... scientific programme. Abstracts of most important contributions were published in ... current number of ... journal "Cybernetics".

    13. Answer the following questions in detail so that these answers would make up a comprehensive account of your participation in the work of some scientific gathering.

    1. Have you ever attended a scientific congress (conference, symposium)?
    2. What problem was it devoted to?
    3. When and where was it held?
    4. Who was its president? (Under whose presidency was it held?)
    5. What was the approximate number of the participants?
    6. What was the number of sections at work and how many sessions were usually held simultaneously?
    7. Which of the problems touched upon attracted general attention and why?
    8. Who was the most significant (noteworthy) communication at this conference given by? What problem did it deal with?
    9. Did you make a report? Was it a success?
    10. How much time were you allowed to develop your subject?
    11. How much time was set aside for discussions? Did this time prove adequate?
    12. Were there any discussions of general interest held during this congress?
    13. Did you take part in any of these discussions?
    14. What was the congress (conference, symposium) especially noteworthy for?

    IV. SUPPLEMENT

    Text: NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

    The largest and most diversified program of civil research in Canada is carried out by the National Research Council (NBC). Its laboratories are engaged in many investigations of interest to Canadian Industry. Some are undertaken on the initiative of the council itself in order to develop promising ideas of its own scientists; some are taken up on recommendations of the Councils associate committees, which include representatives from industry who are interested in particular problems; and others are undertaken in co-operation with individual companies. Routine test work is avoided except when the Council is asked to certify performance of equipment as an independent body.

    Each problem presented to the Council is considered on its merits and dealt with in what seems the most practical way: those of national interest may be undertaken at the expense of the Council; the expense of company problems of less than national scope may be shared by the company and NRC; when facilities are not available elsewhere, specific industrial research may be undertaken by NRC, the results of which become the property of the company.

    Retell the text using some of the expressions given below:

    1. The title of the text is
    2. As you can see (as can be seen) from the title, it is about (it is concerned with, it is devoted to, it deals with) ...
    3. I found the text rather interesting (difficult) because I learned (a great deal) about ...
    4. According to the text ...
    5. According to what I knew before ...
    6. As far as I could gather (understand) from the text ...
    7. From the text it becomes clear that (I could see that, I could understand that, I learned that ...).
    List of words and expressions
    1. To be born.
    2. To go to school.
    3. To get interested in something.
    4. To take entrance examinations.
    5. To be admitted to some Institute.
    6. While in the first (second, etc.) year ...
    7. To join some scientific circle.
    8. To be a success.
    9. To attend lectures (in).
    10. To study (to do mathematics, etc.) under Professor N.
    11. To graduate from the Institute (University).
    12. To begin working (at).
    13. To get an appointment as (a position of) an engineer, junior research worker, laboratory assistant, etc.
    14. To read for ones thesis.
    15. To collect and arrange the data.
    16. To check the result.
    17. To do (carry on) experiments.
    18. To do theoretical work.
    19. To consult ones supervisor (on).
    20. To do research.
    21. To make calculations.
    22. As a result of my studies (experiments, work, calculations) I came to the conclusion (I arrived at the conclusion) that ...
    23. My experimental data agree fairly well with the theory.
    24. I started by collecting data (material, facts).
    25. Now I am through with the experimental part of my work.
    26. I succeeded in obtaining reliable results (data).
    27. My experiments (research) justified the hypothesis.
    28. According to my assumption ...
    29. I find it interesting (important, useful, necessary) to investigate ...
    30. After a series of experiments on ...
    31. I work jointly with some of my colleagues.
    32. My experiments led me to the conclusion that ...
    33. I encounter many difficulties in my work.
    34. I overcame this difficulty by using another approach.
    35. On the basis of my calculation I was able to ...
    36. I was led to this hypothesis through a series of experiments.
    37. Through a series of laboratory studies I managed, to show that ...
    38. My interests centre on the problem of ...
    39. The subject of my main interest is ...
    40. I am particularly (especially) interested in ...
    41. I dont take any interest in ...
    42. Problem of ... are outside the scope of my work (interest).
    1. .. . - .: , 1975.
    2. .., .. . , . - .: , 1970.
    3. .., .. . - . - .: , 1984.

    1. UNIT I

    1.1. Text: Training scientists in the USSR

    1.2. Words and word combinations to be memorized

    1.3. Exercises

    1.4. Supplement

    2. UNIT II

    2.1. Text: Niels Bohr

    2.2. Words and word combinations to be memorized

    2.3. Exercises

    2.4. Supplement

    3.

    3

    3

    3

    4

    9

    12

    12

    13

    13

    18

    21

    .-. . 1990 ., .

    .. .

    , , . .

    ..

    13.10.89 . 60 84/16. .

    . .-.. 1,3. .-.. 1,25. 300 . 668.

    .

    .

    , . , 28.

    , , . , 35.

     








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