НАШИ АВТОРЫ Антонова Екатерина Юрьевна – исполнительный директор Фонда социальных исследований (Санкт-Петербург).
Вендина Ольга Ивановна – кандидат географических наук, старший научный сотрудник Центра геополитических исследований Института географии РАН.
Гутерман Анна Анатольевна – консультант информационно аналитического отдела аппарата Губернатора Ленинградской области.
Исупов Константин Глебович – доктор философских наук, кандидат филологических наук, профессор кафедры эстетики и этики Санкт Петербургского Государственного Педагогического Университета им.
А.И.Герцена, автор монографии «Русская эстетика истории» (1992 г.), автор составитель книги «Петербург и Москва: PRO ET CONTRA». Изд-во РХГИ.
Коргунюк Юрий Григорьевич – кандидат исторических наук, главный редактор бюллетеня «Партинформ». Специалист в области российских политических партий, автор монографий «Российская многопартийность:
становление, функционирование, развитие» (М., 1996, в соавторстве), «Современная российская многопартийность» (М., 1999).
Косенков Кирилл Николаевич – исполнительный директор Независимого Аналитического Центра.
Лищенко Лариса Константиновна – директор Независимого Аналитического Центра.
Михайлов Сергей Васильевич – доктор политических наук, зам.
руководителя Фонда «РОПЦ», зам. главного редактора журнала «Полития».
Макаркин Алексей Владимирович – руководитель аналитического департамента Центра политических технологий. Сфера научных интересов – политические партии России, российские элиты, современная политическая ситуация в России, история православной церкви.
Третьяков Виталий Петрович – доктор психологических наук, профессор Санкт-Петербургского Государственного Университета, автор книг и статей по психологии и истории искусства.
Филимонов Сергей Сергеевич – начальник управления ЦИК Российской партии «Единая Россия», создатель СУБД «Конгресс».
ABSTRACTS PHENOMENON OF CAPITAL MEGAPOLICES Sergey The author states that capital megapolices have always been a rather complex, Mikhailov multifaceted and multicultural economic and political phenomena. Besides, today they are greatly influenced by growing globalization processes. One of Russian specifics lies in the fact that there are two centers in its new and modem history, and their interrelationship as well as their relations with the rest of the country have been constantly changing and developing.
MOSCOW – PETERSBURG: TWO CITIES, TWO FUNCTIONS Vitaly Tretyakov The author considers that historical and geopolitical difference between Moscow and Saint Petersburg lies in their functions. He believes that being the gatherer of the lands Moscow is the cradle of Russian federalism, while Petersburg weakened federalism during certain historical periods replacing it by imperial centralization of power and successfully implementing the function of a transport corridor between Russia and the West. Analyzing the current functions of the two Russian metropolitan areas V.Tretyakov assumes that it would be wrong to lay emphasis on Petersburg’s transport functions. In his opinion, efforts should be concentrated on the use of its huge intellectual potential.
IDEAS AND HYPOTHESIS MOSCOW AND PETERSBURG. THE STORY OF THE HISTORY Olga OF RIVALRY BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN CAPITALS Vendina The rivalry of the two Russian capitals is studied in the light of everyday and sacral myths that shaped their images. The author comes to the conclusion that the loss/acquisition of the capital status in both cases led to the inversion of myths and their semantic re-coding. However, the main structural elements of the ideas about the actual capital and the former capital were repeated. What was different is the content of these structures in relation to the specifics of a historical period. The conflict between the capitals has both cultural and geopolitical roots. The former stem from the images of the «new» and the «old» capitals structured as an opposition expressed in the clash between the «spirituality» and the «mercantilism.» The latter can be explained by the poor development of the system of Russian cities.
According to O. Vendina, this predetermines the everlasting competition between the two main hubs of political, economic and cultural influence in the country.
DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE CAPITALS IN THE HISTORICAL Konstantin Isupov DEVELOPMENT The author believes that the historical function of the world capitals is to gather, to remember and to generate the cultural polyphony of a nation and the humankind. It is only in the capitals that the strategies of spiritual development are shaped. Being the center of the national historical self-consciousness, each of the two Russian capitals was accumulating its values and creating its Weltanschauung (worldview). The two megapolices had a sort of a constant argument with a certain excitement of cultural competition. According to the author, the dialogue became a way of an inner spiritual growth. As a result the jealousy of one city to the other turned into a competitive enlightenment.
K. Isupov believes that another result of such two-voiced Moscow-Petersburg culture is the Russian character. In his opinion, the sociability and profound concentration, love to extremes, universal open-mindedness and quiet awareness of one’s potentials, castle-building together with historical hope – all these characteristics of a Russian person were coined in the dialogue between the capitals.
PETERSBURG AND RUSSIAN POLITEIA SAINT-PETE TEAM IN MOSCOW: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT'S Alexei POLITICAL ENTOURAGE Makarkin The article covers the research on the sources of formation, the development stages and the prospects of the part of the President’s entourage called «the Saint Pete team». The author considers it one of the most influential players on the Russian political arena.
The work follows the horizontal and vertical links of the Saint-Pete team, the nature of its connections with other groups of Moscow political elite, business etc.
Alexei Makarkin states that there exists certain disagreement inside the team, although in most cases such disagreement is not exposed to light. He accounts for that by the existence of different sources of recruiting and complicated and complex relationships inside some of the groups within the team.
According to the author, at least at the present time, the influence of the Saint Pete team has not yet acquired the dominant nature. This can be explained by the existence of considerable limitations including the ‘backbench’s’ low numbers and narrowness. Nonetheless, the article asserts that the team is on the rise and its cadre expansion is most likely to continue in the future.
PUBLIC CONSCIOUSNESS PUBLIC OPINION OF MOSCOVITES AND PETERSBURGERS Anna Guterman, Kirill Kosenkov, AT THE END OF THE XX-TH CENTURY (SURVEY-BASED) Larisa Lischenko, Vitaly Tretyakov, The work is based on the comparative survey on the problems of mainly socio Sergey Filimonov political nature typical of the second half of the nineties. The survey was conducted among the residents of Moscow and Saint Petersburg. One thousand respondents a week were surveyed in both megapolices during the three year period. A single method was used. The material obtained gives particularly an idea about the Moscovites and Petersburgers’ attitude to power, the level of its efficiency and morals. The authors focus their attention on political parties, mass media, the first Chechen campaign, the union with Belorussia, the attitude to the collapse of the USSR, delays in salary payment and other. Another aim of the survey was to study the attitude of Moscovites and Petersburgers to the slogan «Petersburg is the cultural capital» and to understand their perception of the notion of culture. In a number of cases there was an opportunity to compare not only the opinions of Moscovites with those of Petersburgers but also the opinions of the two capitals’ residents on the one side and the residents of the Leningrad region on the other. The authors try to under stand both the evident similarities in the positions of Muscovites and Saint Petersburgers and some differences in their views.
CHRONICLE BETWEEN THE FEDERAL AND THE REGIONAL DIMENSIONS:
Youri Korgunyuk POLITICAL PARTIES AND MOVEMENTS IN MOSCOW, 1987- The author emphasizes the special role of the Moscow megapolis for Russian political parties, most of which were created here. In this respect he dwells on the specifics of the relationships between the parties and their party organizations in the capital.
The author designates the development stages of the capital multiparty system:
the «heroic» phase (the end of 1980-1993), the balance phase (1994-1998), and the period when the Moscow authorities themselves were turning into a party (1998 to now.) The author analyzes the tapestry of changing Moscow multiparty political life in its constant changeability, in its dynamics. He studies the relations between political parties and their strategic and tactical partners, the Moscow authorities.
According to the forecast of Youri Korgunyuk, the current decline in the political activity will be replaced by a new rise. He connects all this to the inevitable division between the power and the business circles, with business becoming an independent player at the political arena.
SAINT PETERSBURG AS THE SECOND MOTHERLAND OF Youri Korgunyuk RUSSIAN MULTIPARTY SYSTEM: POLITICAL PARTIES AND MOVEMENTS IN PETERSBURG, 1987- According to the author, the relative weakness (in comparison with Moscow, of course) of the local bureaucracy in combination with a relatively strong influence of Saint Petersburg intelligentsia was the main factor that influenced the initial stage of the development of the political life in the city. It is typical of Saint Petersburg that all processes connected with the involvement of intelligentsia into the political life were much more rapid than in Moscow, not to speak about the rest of Russia.
However, in Saint Petersburg the crisis of the democratic movement, its split, the decrease in the number of the organizations associated with it happened much earlier then anywhere else.
Political parties and movements in Saint Petersburg are studied in the light of their participation in the election campaigns and primarily those for the three Legislative Assemblies. Apart from that, the article covers the clashing tendencies towards the federalization and regionalization of Saint Petersburg political environment and relations between the city’s parties and executive bodies.
Vitaly THE OUTCOME OF ELECTIONS TO THE THIRD CALL Tretyakov, LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF SAINT-PETERSBURG FROM THE Ekaterina POINT OF VIEW OF SOCIOLOGISTS Antonova The authors undertake a sociological analysis of the latest elections to the Legislative Assembly of Petersburg. The work is based on comparing the surveys of the voters on the eve of the election campaign, on the one hand, and the election returns in each of the 50 constituencies, on the other.
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